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Test ID: GLURA Glucose, Random, Serum

Reporting Name

Glucose, Random, S

Useful For

Diagnosing and managing diabetes mellitus and other carbohydrate metabolism disorders including gestational diabetes, neonatal hypoglycemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell carcinoma

Clinical Information

The most common disease related to carbohydrate metabolism is diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by insufficient blood levels of active insulin. Symptoms include polyuria, abnormally elevated blood and urine glucose values, excessive thirst, constant hunger, sudden weight loss, and possibly elevated blood and urine ketones. Complications from diabetes are the third leading cause of death in the United States. There are approximately 16 million diabetics in the United States, and that number is growing. It is estimated that at least 5 million of these people have not been diagnosed. The prevalence in the population age 65 and older is 18.4%, representing 6.3 million cases. The cost of diabetes to the US economy exceeds $92 billion annually.


Overproduction or excess administration of insulin causes a decrease in blood glucose to levels below normal. In severe cases, the resulting extreme hypoglycemia is followed by muscular spasm and loss of consciousness, known as insulin shock.


Any of the following results, confirmed on a subsequent day, can be considered diagnostic for diabetes:

-Fasting plasma or serum glucose ≥126 mg/dL after an 8-hour fast

-2-Hour plasma or serum glucose ≥200 mg/ dL during a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

-Random glucose >200 mg/dL, plus typical symptoms


Patients with "impaired" glucose regulation are those whose fasting serum or plasma glucose fall between 101 and 126 mg/dL, or whose 2-hour value on oral glucose tolerance test fall between 140 and 199 mg/dL. These patients have a markedly increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and should be counseled for lifestyle changes and followed up with more testing. Indications for screening and testing include strong family history, marked obesity, history of babies over 9 pounds, and recurrent skin and genitourinary infections.


Glucose levels of 25 mg/dL or lower in infants younger than 1 week are considered to be potentially life threatening, as are glucose levels of 40 mg/dL or lower in infants older than 1 week.


Glucose levels of 400 mg/dL and higher are considered a critical value.

Report Available

Same day/1 to 2 days

Day(s) Performed

Monday through Sunday

Clinical Reference

Chapter 25: In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Fourth edition. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood, DE Bruns. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2006, pp 837-907

Method Name


Specimen Type


Specimen Required


Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Serum gel tubes should be centrifuged within 2 hours of collection.

2. Red-top tubes should be centrifuged and aliquoted within 2 hours of collection.

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.25 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
  Frozen  30 days

Reference Values

0-11 months: not established

≥1 year: 70-140 mg/dL

Test Classification

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GLURA Glucose, Random, S 2345-7


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
GLURA Glucose, Random, S 2345-7
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